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Coronavirus In LA: Your No-Panic Guide To Daily Life And The New (And Changing) Rules

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UPDATED: April 27, 2020

Life in L.A. -- and really, most of the country at this point -- has been fundamentally changed. We don't know yet what the new normal is going to be, and we don't know when. Some local officials are eyeing mid-May to start rolling back restrictions, but a lot would have to happen first.

Gov. Gavin Newsom's plan for relaxing the stay-at-home order hinges on six key metrics and a number of phases (we are now in Phase 3). L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti has a plan with five key marks to hit.

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So here's where we are:

Californians are still under orders to stay home unless working essential jobs or seeking essential services. Businesses are closed, a staggering number of people are out of work, and if you're not sure what day it is, we can relate.

The U.S. still has the highest number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the world, with local numbers contining to rise.

And we are still publishing and updating this guide. For weeks now we've been doing what we can to help combat fear, anxiety and frustration by:

  • Bringing you the most recent and accurate information
  • Explaining what's happened/happening in clear language (but let us know if we're falling short)
  • Continuing to update this comprehensive guide as new information becomes available (it's now basically impossible to count how many updates we have made.)
  • Answering your questions

Everyone here in the LAist newsroom takes our essential work as journalists very seriously. Most of us have been working from home since March 11. We're here for the long haul.
We remain committed to helping you understand the changing reality, and confront what's ahead, while we all do our best to slow the spread of this deadly disease.

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This is what we know so far. Scroll, search, or jump to a section.

Timeline & Map | Officials & Orders | About The Virus | Symptoms, Testing, Treatment | Masks & Products | Food Help & Food Safety | Daily Life | Enforcement | Rent, Loans, Unemployment | Other Kinds Of Help | Hospitals | Schools | City & County Operations | Homelessness | More Q&A | Ask A Question

THE TIMELINE
On January 30, a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" was declared by the World Health Organization over an outbreak of a new, deadly, novel coronavirus which began in Wuhan City, China.

On February 11, WHO announced "COVID-19" as the name of he disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is an abbreviation of "coronavirus disease 2019."

On March 4, L.A. County declared a local and public emergency, and Gov. Gavin Newsom made the call to declare an emergency for the state of California the same day.

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On March 11, WHO made it official: COVID-19 is a pandemic.

On March 19, California, the nation's most populous state, ordered its nearly 40 million residents to stay home and practice social distancing (there are exceptions).

On March 26, the United States surpassed China as the country with highest total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the world.

On April 11, the U.S. became the nation with the most confirmed COVID-19 deaths.

The global total is now more than 207,500 deaths and over 2,995,000 confirmed cases. The local total is more than 910 deaths and over 19,500 confirmed cases.

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THE MAP
You can track the global scope and spread with this map and list from Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. And these U.S. numbers from the CDC are updated daily.

The map below also shows cumulative confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries. It's updated in near real-time throughout the day. Zoom out to see more of the world.

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WHAT'S THE WORD FROM L.A. OFFICIALS?
The main message from local health officials is: don't panic. But L.A. is taking significant precautions.

A local public health emergency was declared by county officials on March 4.

The first possible community spread case -- meaning the source of infection was unknown -- was announced on March 9.

L.A. County announced the first death from COVID-19 on March 11.

Confirmed cases and deaths are being tracked on the public health department's website.

On March 15, L.A. County officials said they were closing all offices to the public, Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti issued a moratorium on evictions, and an executive order banning dine-in restaurants and entertainment facilities went into effect at midnight.

L.A. County followed with a similar list of actions, closures, and restrictions the following day, including strongly discouraging gatherings of more than 50 people.

The "Safer at Home" emergency order was issued by L.A. County and city leaders on March 19. It includes the following directives:

  • Residents should remain at home.
  • Do not gather in enclosed spaces with more than 10 people.
  • Close all non-critical businesses (that can't operate remotely) until further notice.

"I want to be clear about this," said L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti during the announcement, "that the only time you should leave your home is for essential activities and needs -- to get food, care for a relative or a friend or child, get necessary health care," and the like.
Jobs that are critical to safety, health, and the security of city, as well as an "economy of recovery," are exempt. Examples Garcetti cited:

  • Emergency personnel
  • First responders
  • Government employees
  • Medical personnel
  • Vital infrastructure workers
  • Health care providers
  • Transportation services
  • Grocery stores
  • Restaurants (but for take-out or delivery only)
  • News outlets
  • Hardware stores
  • Gas stations
  • Banks and financial institutions
  • Plumbers, electricians
  • Dry cleaners and laundromats

But social distancing must be enforced in all of these cases.
You are allowed to go outside, take a walk, and enjoy an open space. But some outdoor areas are off-limits because of crowding. And even in outside, you are required to stay 6 feet away from people.

On March 25, Garcetti said the stay-at-home order would likely be in place until May.

On the same day, public health officials issued an Emergency Quarantine Order and an Emergency Isolation Order. Here's when to home-quarantine, and when to self-isolate.

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(Screenshot via Megan Erwin/KPCC/LAist)

On March 27, Garcetti tonight used what may have been his strongest language yet to urge people to heed his stay-at-home orders.

"These aren't suggestions, I remind you, these are orders. We are in the midst of a pandemic," Garcetti said.

The city punctuated that message with a piercing emergency alert sent moments after his nightly address reminding people to keep staying at home, and to only go out for essential activities. L.A. County sent an alert as well.

Official guidance on general mask-wearing arrived on April 1. Garcetti made the recommendation that all residents wear face coverings whenever they're out of the house and interacting with people.

About a week later, that was changed to a requirement. Shoppers and store employees must wear face masks starting April 10.

L.A. County echoed with a face covering ordinance a few days later, bringing some uniformity to the patchwork of mask rules across the 88 cities. You now have to wear a mask when shopping anywhere in L.A. County.

County health officials have also extended the stay-at-home order to May 15. They laid out new data that shows current social distancing practices are working -- but we need to do better.

We are bending the curve, but if we stop physical distancing, the projection is that "virtually all residents in Los Angeles County would have been exposed or infected with COVID-19" by mid-summer, said the director of L.A. County's Department of Health Services.

Testing is still only being recommended for people who are symptomatic.

Garcetti said he doesn't see large gatherings like concerts happening again this year, but relative normalcy may come sooner. Similar to Gov. Gavin Newsom's six strategies, the mayor laid out five key marks for the city to hit in order to lift the stay-at-home order:

  • Widespread virus and blood testing
  • Real-time disease surveillance to detect outbreaks faster
  • Rapid, aggressive response to potential outbreaks
  • Increase hospital capacity
  • Ongoing research and development

On April 17, Garcetti said testing capacity has increased and urged everyone with symptoms to get a free test.

Based on the current modeling, mid-May is the projection to begin rolling back the current restrictions, said Barbara Ferrer, director of the L.A. County Department of Public Health at a briefing on April 21. But, she said, there is no "magic day."

Ferrer said on April 22 that CDC staff members would be helping the health department improve infection control practices at skilled nursing facilities, and that approximatel 40% of all deaths countywide have been at institutional facilities.

On April 23, COVID-19 became the leading cause of death in L.A. County, surpassing coronary heart disease, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the flu.

On April 27, Ferrer said that county residents living in areas with high rates of poverty are dying at a rate about three times that of communities with low poverty rates.

"This data is deeply disturbing and it speaks to the need for immediate action... this would mean increased testing, better access and connection to health care and support services, and more accurate culturally appropriate information about COVID-19, and we're joining with our partners in the community to make sure this happens."

On the same day, Mayor Garcetti said L.A. might be baby stepping toward normalcy in the next two to six weeks. There are plenty of caveats. There's also this: because what we've done is working, most of us could still get the coronavirus. "If we open up the wrong way," he said, 95% of us could get COVID-19 by August 1, citing a USC study.

Here are local, current coronavirus totals: confirmed cases and deaths.
Here is an L.A. County breakdown by city.

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WHAT'S THE WORD FROM THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA?
On March 15, Gov. Gavin Newsom called for far stricter guidelines in the state. He asked all seniors and people with underlying conditions to isolate at home, restaurants to operate at diminished capacity, and wineries, bars, and brewpubs to close.

In a March 18 letter to President Trump, Newsom projected that more than half of the population of California will be infected with the virus over an eight-week period. He asked for $1 billion in federal funding and requested the hospital ship USNS Mercy be sent to Los Angeles.

On March 19, about an hour after the L.A. County orders were announced, Gov. Gavin Newsom ordered all residents of California to stay home or otherwise remain at their place of residence in order to slow the spread of the virus. There are exceptions for people who maintain critical infrastructure in 16 key sectors, including:

  • Chemical
  • Commercial Facilities
  • Communications
  • Critical Manufacturing
  • Dams
  • Defense Industrial Base
  • Emergency Services
  • Energy
  • Financial Services
  • Food and Agriculture
  • Government Facilities
  • Health Care and Public Health
  • Information Technology
  • Nuclear Reactors, Materials, and Waste
  • Transportation
  • Water and Wastewater Systems

On April 13, Newsom announced what he described as a shared framework with Oregon and Washington about how to economically reopen California. More details came April 14 with a plan that includes six key metrics for loosening the stay-at-home orders. They include:

  1. More testing, tracking, isolating/quarantining, and supporting people who are positive/exposed.
  2. Protecting the most vulnerable from infection and spread.
  3. Hospitals and health systems being able to handle surges.
  4. The ability to develop therapeutic drugs to meet the demand.
  5. The ability for businesses, schools, and child care facilities to allow for physical distancing.
  6. The ability to determine when/if to reinstitute measures like stay-at-home orders.

The governor's tasked 80 leaders to help plan for the state's economic recovery, with an advisory council that includes all four of the state's living governors. He said the task force -- which will divide up into sub-groups covering entertainment, hospitality, retail, manufacturing, regional issues, etc. -- will work on actionable ideas in real time, not some future report.

Newsom said on April 21 that local officials can lift some stay-at-home restrictions, as long as they don't conflict with state orders. His comments, made a daily press briefing, were in response to a question about Riverside County opening up golf courses and Port Hueneme opening beaches.

The governor reviewed testing numbers on April 22. California was at 16,000 tests/day with an eye on 25,000 tests/day by the end of April (and 60,000 tests/day as a medium-term goal).

He said the 465,000 tests administered so far in California were not enough to modify stay-at-home orders.

On April 27, Newsom said he hoped the state was weeks, not months, away from making significant changes to the stay-at-home orders -- but that those decisions will be driven by data, and require people to abide by physical distancing orders.

As an example of what not to do, he brought up photos from Orange and Ventura counties of people crowding the beaches. He gave special attention to Newport Beach's weekend crowding situation.

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WHAT'S THE WORD FROM THE WHITE HOUSE?
Note: President Trump usually opens coronavirus news briefings with his own remarks. His comments in a number of past briefings have later been contradicted by information provided by other officials. He has also repeatedly used stigmatizing language to describe COVID-19. Following the president's remarks, health experts and other adminstration leaders provide additional updates.

Voluntary, nationwide guidelines were announced on March 16, initially set to last for 15 days.

President Trump and the White House coronavirus task force asked Americans to close schools, avoid groups of more than 10 people, homeschool kids where possible, avoid discretionary travel, and refrain from visiting bars, restaurants, and food courts.

On March 18, the border between the U.S. and Canada was closed for "non-essential" travel. On March 20 came an announcement closing the U.S. and Mexico border to non-essential travel.

Meanwhile, a Level 4, "Do Not Travel" global health advisory was issued by the U.S. State Department advising all citizens to "avoid all international travel due to the global impact of COVID-19."

At a March 23 briefing, Trump said the REAL ID deadline will be postponed and that surgical and N95 masks would be distributed by FEMA. An executive order was also announced by Attorney General William Barr making certain items illegal to hoard.

On March 27, Trump announced at a briefing that he invoked the Defense Production Act, "to compel General Motors to accept, perform and prioritize federal contracts for ventilators." He put it differently on Twitter that day.

The task force said on March 31 that Americans should brace for 100,000 or more people to die in the coming months in the pandemic. Dr. Anthony Fauci and Dr. Deborah Birx renewed pleas to observe precautions. Birx said she's "reassured" by what L.A. has accomplished with social distancing in terms of how other cities might be able to respond as well.

On April 3, Trump said hospitals treating uninsured coronavirus patients would be reimbursed by the administration with funds from the economic relief package. The president also announced new CDC recommendations that people wear non-medical cloth face coverings when out in public.

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said eligible taxpayers could receive stimulus payments within two weeks (others said some checks could take months).

On April 9, the federal government released new guidelines about when people in critical infrastructure roles can go back to work if they've been exposed to a confirmed or suspected case of the coronavirus. The CDC recommendations include taking temperatures before work, wearing face masks at all times, and practicing social distancing as much as duties allow.

On April 16 came a three-phased approach to normalization, albeit without time requirements. The strategy is contingent upon states having data about case levels, the capacity to treat all patients and test healthcare workers, and the ability to trace the contacts of those infected. States can decide on a county-by-county approach, according to an 18-page document obtained by NPR.

Each phase would require a 14-day period of a "downward trajectory" of cases to advance to the next one. Here's an overview --

Phase One:

  • states or regions would have social distancing guidelines similar to those in place now
  • a prohibition on gatherings of more than 10
  • maximized physical distance
  • working from home when possible
  • the closures of schools and bars etc.
  • strict physical distancing protocols would be ordered for places like restaurants, theaters, sporting venues, churches and gyms.
  • vulnerable people would be urged to stay home.

Phase Two:

  • states and regions that show no signs of a rebound could expand gatherings to 50 people.
  • resume non-essential travel.
  • working from home would still be encouraged.
  • schools could reopen and bars could operate with "diminished standing-room occupancy."
  • vulnerable people still would be urged to stay home.

Phase Three:

  • states and regions could expand guidance so that vulnerable individuals could go out in public.
  • visits to hospitals and nursing homes could resume.

NPR has the full guidelines documents.

On April 20, Trump announced via Twitter his intention to "temporarily suspend immigration."

"In light of the attack from the Invisible Enemy, as well as the need to protect the jobs of our GREAT American Citizens, I will be signing an Executive Order to temporarily suspend immigration into the United States!"

He gave more details during an April 21 news briefing, and said the measure was needed to protect the jobs of U.S. workers. He also said secondary orders were under consideration.

On April 22, Trump signed an executive order to temporarily ban some green carder seekers from coming to the U.S. It goes into effect on April 24 and will last for two months, further extending the wait for green card seekers, some of whom first applied decades ago.

But the move is far less wide-ranging than Trump had indicated in his tweet.

His order exempts green card applicants who are the minor children and spouses of U.S. citizens. It also has a carve-out for health care workers, including nurses and doctors and people doing work that is "essential to combating, recovering from, or otherwise alleviating the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak."

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WHAT IS SARS-CoV-2?

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A CDC illustration. (Alissa Eckert, MS; Dan Higgins, MAM)

SARS-CoV-2 is in the family of coronavirus pathogens that usually cause short-lived illnesses.

They get their name because of how they look, which is spiny around the edges, like a crown. And some coronaviruses are scarier than others. Scientists are still trying to figure out how dangerous this new (or "novel") coronavirus is.

"Most people get infected with these viruses at some point in their lives," according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Symptoms may include fever, cough, difficulty breathing, runny nose, and headache. But they can vary in severity. Thousands of people have died, but "other patients have had milder illness and been discharged," the CDC said.

On February 11, the World Health Organization announced "COVID-19" as the name of he disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is an abbreviation of "coronavirus disease 2019."

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HOW IS THE CORONAVIRUS SPREAD?

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This photo from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows a microscopic view of a coronavirus. (CDC/Getty Images)

Coronaviruses generally jump from person to person on the droplets from coughs and sneezes.

The CDC's current best guess is that the incubation period for novel coronavirus -- that's the time from exposure to when symptoms first start showing up -- is somewhere between two and 14 days.

Health officials continue to stress the importance of good hand hygiene and washing technique.

We still don't know how easily this coronavirus can spread through the air.

L.A.'s public health director Barbara Ferrer said the virus is too big and heavy to linger in the air, while others are investigating the possibility of spread via "bioaerosols." The World Health Organization says it doesn't seem to linger or travel more than 3 feet, but at least one medical expert says it's way too soon to know that.

Another question is viral load, or the amount of the virus in your system. It's still unclear whether viral load can affect your chances of getting sick, and recent studies suggest that it could affect the severity of your illness, Ferrer said.

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HOW LONG DOES IT LIVE?
It depends on where it is.

The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 is "stable for several hours to days in aerosols and on surfaces," according to a study from National Institutes of Health, CDC, UCLA and Princeton University scientists in The New England Journal of Medicine.

  • detectable in aerosols for up to three hours
  • up to four hours on copper
  • up to 24 hours on cardboard
  • up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel

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IS THIS CORONAVIRUS LIKE SARS OR MERS?
MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) are two members of the coronavirus family that tend to make people sicker. "About 3 or 4 out of every 10 patients reported with MERS have died," according to the CDC. And SARS was responsible for a global outbreak in 2002-2003 that killed 774 people.

"The novel coronavirus is more genetically related to SARS than MERS," said Dr. Nancy Messonnier.

But scientists don't know yet if novel coronavirus will act the same way as SARS or MERS; they're using information from both pathogens to guide their research.

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CAN MY PET CAT OR DOG GET THE CORONAVIRUS?
Maybe. It has happened.

A tiger in New York City with a respiratory illness (I know, nothing makes sense) was the first animal to test positive in the U.S. That was in early April.

On April 22, two pet cats in New York were confirmed to have COVID-19 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Veterinary Services Laboratories.

The CDC's website said it has been aware of reports about pets, including cats and dogs, being infected. Most had close contact with an infected person.

There's an evolving FAQ with CDC guidance on protecting animals. Specific recommendations were laid out in the press release from the USDA:

  • Don't let pets interact with people or animals from outside of your home.
  • Keep cats indoors when possible to prevent mingling with other animals or people.
  • Walk dogs on a leash and keep at least 6 feet away from other people and animals.
  • Avoid dog parks or public places where a large number of people and dogs gather.

If you're sick (either suspected or confirmed COVID-19), you should:

  • Avoid contact with your animal friend, and isolate.
  • That means no petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, or sharing food or bedding.
  • Have another member of your household care for your pet if possible.
  • If that's not possible, wear a cloth face covering and wash your hands before and after interactions.

Meanwhile, adoptions of shelter pets in L.A. have been "off the charts."

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WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF COVID-19?
Common symptoms can include: low-grade fever, body aches, fatigue, coughing, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea.

Severe symptoms can include: high fever, severe cough, shortness of breath, persistent chest pain or pressure, confusion, bluish lips or face.

These symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure. However, some people infected with the virus have no symptoms at all.

There also may also be additional symptoms beyond what we've listed above.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and Harvard Health have additional details.

You may have also heard about lack of smell or taste being a potential symptom, though it is not part of officials' criteria for testing.

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WHAT DO I DO IF I THINK I MIGHT HAVE IT?
If you think you might have been exposed, or have COVID-19 symptoms, call your doctor for next steps (or call 211 in L.A. County if you need to find a clinician).

Also, see the orders from L.A.'s public health department on self-isolation and self-quarantine. If you experience severe symptoms, get immediate medical attention.

If you are caring for someone with COVID-19 at home, here are some things to keep in mind. These tips come from UCLA's Dr. Robert Kim-Farley with the Fielding School of Public Health (and a former staffer with the CDC):

  • Make sure they wear a mask
  • Make sure you wear a mask
  • Monitor for trouble breathing
  • Monitor for persistent chest pain or pressure
  • Call their healthcare provider if symptoms become more severe (especially if they're elderly or have pre-existing conditions).
  • Clean surfaces frequently
  • Try to keep the patient in one bedroom, and ideally one bathroom
  • Don't shake the laundry before washing (to avoid aerosolizing virus particles that may be on their clothes).
  • Restrict unnecessary visitors
  • Wash hands frequently

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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN QUARANTINE, ISOLATION, AND SOCIAL DISTANCING
L.A.'s public health department issued orders about when to home-quarantine and when to self-isolate.

Also, if you've tested positive for COVID-19, you're required by the CDC to notify everyone you were in close contact with -- including during the 48 hours before your symptoms started -- so those people can self-quarantine for up to 14 days. Close contact means less than 6 feet apart for 10 minutes or more.

These categories of separation are all designed to stop or slow the spread of contagious diseases. Here's how they differ, according to the CDC and Harvard Health:

  • Quarantine: a separation for people who have a contagious disease, have symptoms consistent with a contagious disease, or were exposed to a contagious disease. A person's movements are restricted when they are quarantined

  • Isolation: a less restrictive separation that keeps people who are sick away from people who are not sick

  • Self-Isolation: a voluntary action to stay at home by people who are sick (or are likely to be sick) and are experiencing mild symptoms

  • Self-Quarantine: a voluntary action to stay at home by people who may have been exposed but are not experiencing symptoms

  • Social Distancing: keeping your distance from other people. The distance reduces the risk of breathing in droplets that are produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or, in some cases, breathes. It can also mean cancelling events or gatherings (the term "physical distancing" means the same thing.)

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HOW CAN I GET TESTED FOR CORONAVIRUS?
Drive-thru testing sites (and a few walk-in clinics) are open across L.A. County, but you can't just show up. You have to get approved first. There are a few ways to do that:

  • GET A DIRECTIVE from a health care provider. Call your doctor and they'll give you the next steps. If you don't have a health care provider, call 211 and they'll direct you to a nearby clinician. L.A. public health officials are asking people not to call 911 and not go to the emergency room unless you're experiencing severe symptoms and need immediate medical attention.

  • APPLY ONLINE if you live anywhere in L.A. County. You can get screened via the online portal. Anyone experiencing COVID-19 symptoms can apply for a test, but it doesn't necessarily mean everyone will get one. You'll be asked some questions on the eligibility form, and then you'll be asked for your contact information for next steps. A rapid mobile testing team can also be requested online to test at assisted living facilities.

Initially, these tests were limited to people most at risk, but the restrictions have been relaxed. There is now same-day or next-day testing available for anyone with symptoms .

For additional details, check out the lengthy testing FAQ and testing information page put together jointly by the city and county of L.A.

But, testing or not, if you experience severe symptoms, get immediate medical help.

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DO I HAVE TO PAY TO GET THE CORONAVIRUS TEST?
No. California health officials are waiving all co-pays for COVID-19 testing. That applies to people on all insurance plans, and people who don't have health coverage.

You can also be tested for free regardless of your immigration status. And the federal government has said that getting tested or treated for coronavirus will not count toward the public charge test for getting a green card.

And if you don't have insurance, here are some options for getting it: Covered California and the entire individual health insurance market has extended the enrollment window to June 30; enrollment for Medi-Cal is open year round; and in L.A. County, there's the no-cost health care plan My Health LA.

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WHERE DO I GO FOR THE CORONAVIRUS TEST?
Drive-thru testing sites (and a few walk-in clinics) are open across L.A. County.

Here's a map of the locations.

But, again, you can't just show up.

You have to be approved first.

Get screened online to request a test, or try to get a directive from a health care provider.

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HOW DOES THE CORONAVIRUS TEST WORK?
At some testing sites, a health professional will administer a nasal swab.

At other places, you'll be given a testing kit for an oral swab that you can administer yourself.

Here's an instructional video from local officials, and here's a first hand account of the process.

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WHAT'S THE ANTIBODY TEST?
It's a blood test to see if you've formed antibodies against the coronavirus, which is a way of telling whether you've ever had it, even if you never developed symptoms. Antibodies are proteins your body produces to fight infections.

This test hasn't gotten as much attention as the test to see if you actively have the coronavirus, but widespread testing for antibodies will be crucial to figuring out how much the virus has spread, how deadly it is, and when we might get back to something approximating normal life.

To help kickstart that effort, L.A. County and USC teamed up to test for antibodies in 1,000 Angelenos.

County Health Officer Dr. Muntu Davis told us that people will be tested to determine if they've been infected, and if so, "what their antibodies look like." Davis said the data will help to make some "general estimates and predictions" about how far the virus has spread and how deadly it is.

At least one SoCal hospital is experimenting with transferring antibodies from a recovered patient. The hope is that the antibodies will attack the virus to help a sick person heal.

The county/USC study participants are all adults, and they were selected to create a random sample that reflects the county's demographic makeup. They'll got the "serology" test at six drive-thru sites on April 10 and 11, according to ABC7.

Those leading the study intend to repeat the tests every two weeks for three months.

Neerja Sood, a vice dean at USC involved in the project, told The Washington Post that the test kits were donated by a private individual who read his Wall Street Journal op-ed about the importance of randomized testing.

Preliminary findings were announced April 20. The data suggests many more people in L.A. County could potentially be infected than the official count. It also suggests the mortality rate for the county could be lower.

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IF I'M AN ASYMPTOMATIC CORONAVIRUS CARRIER, HOW LONG AM I CONTAGIOUS?
You could be contagious for up to 14 days, according to Dr. Shruti Gohil, University of California Irvine Medical Center.

However, Gohil said, since asymptomatic carriers may not know when Day 1 was, it's "encouraging to know ... their ability to spread the disease is far less than those who are actively symptomatic."

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IF I HAD CORONAVIRUS CAN I GET IT AGAIN?
Barbara Ferrer, director of the L.A. County Department of Public Health, told us: "We don't have conclusive evidence on that."

She said that "in general you can be protected when you've had an infection, but not always. We're just going to have to wait for the researchers and the scientists to let us know what they're finding out about that."

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IS THERE A VACCINE? WHAT'S THE TREATMENT?
There is no vaccine yet. Scientists started working on a plan in January, before COVID-19 even had a name. A number of companies have been working on vaccine development, and clinical trials are underway. The timeline is unknown, but experts have been weighing in with estimates.

For treatment, at least one SoCal hospital is experimenting with transferring antibodies from a recovered patient. The hope is that the antibodies will attack the virus to help a sick person heal.

Cedars-Sinai is participating in a clinical trial of the drug Remdesivir. A small trial of an experimental antiviral drug has shown encouraging results, the hospital announced on April 10.

"Currently there are no FDA-approved drugs specifically for the treatment of COVID-19," according the FDA's FAQs.

The president has promoted a pair of malaria drugs as a possible treatment. The AP reported that a nationwide study -- not peer reviewed -- of hydroxychloroquine use at U.S. veterans hospitals found no benefit and more deaths among those given the drug, versus standard care.

The CDC's guidance for for clinical management of the coronavirus includes, "infection prevention and control measures and supportive care, including supplementary oxygen and mechanical ventilatory support when indicated."

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IS IBUPROFEN SAFE TO TAKE FOR A COVID-19 FEVER?

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(Twitter/@WHO)

There's currently no established link between ibuprofen and coronavirus complications, but there is a lot of conflicting information being circulated.

The World Health Organization officially weighed in on Twitter on March 18 with this guidance, in all its double negative glory:

Based on currently available information, WHO does not recommend against the use of of ibuprofen.

The CDC has issued no coronavirus-related guidance regarding the use of anti-inflammatories as of March 20.

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SHOULD I BE WEARING A MASK IN DAILY LIFE?
Yes, if you're not at home and there will be other people around.

The first official guidance on general mask-wearing arrived on April 1.

L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti made the recommendation that all residents wear face coverings when out and about (but do not put masks on kids under 2-years-old. It's a suffocation risk).

We are now recommending that Angelenos use homemade face coverings when they're in public and interacting with others.

To be clear, you should still stay at home, this isn't an excuse to suddenly all go out, you need to stay at home.

But when you have to go out, we are recommending that we use non medical grade masks.

He spelled out two categories of masks, and who should wear what:
  • Surgical masks: These are medical grade, like the N95, and they are reserved for medical professionals.
  • Homemade cloth masks: These are bandanas, scarves, hand-sewn masks and the like and should be worn by everyone else, including workers providing other essential services, such as those in food retail and vital infrastructure jobs.

Do "not take the ones that are reserved for our first responders," he said. "This could save, or cost, a doctor or nurse their life."
About a week later, Garcetti changed the mask-wearking recommendation to a requirement: shoppers and store employees must wear them. And the rule applies to grocery stores, drug stores, restaurants, hotels, taxis, rideshare vehicles, construction sites, and other non-medical essential businesses.

Additionally, employers are required to provide face masks to their employees, or reimburse them for the purchase.

L.A.'s Public Health Department issued face-covering guidance, too:

Members of the general public should use a clean face covering anytime they will be in contact with other people who are not household members in public or private spaces.

And finally, L.A. County echoed all of the above with a face covering ordinance passed by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. That action added some uniformity to the patchwork of rules across the 88 cities. You now have to wear a mask when shopping anywhere in the county.

The CDC also officially recommends cloth masks for everyone.

Additional CDC guidance recommended people in critical infrastructure roles wear a face mask at all times when they go back to work after being exposed to a confirmed or suspected case of the coronavirus.

Check your city's particular guidelines about wearing a mask if you're out for walk or a run. L.A. County health officials said a mask is not needed, but some cities like Beverly Hills and Glendale were requiring people to wear one.

RECAP:

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WHICH DISINFECTANTS CAN I USE AGAINST SARS-CoV-2?
The EPA released a list of products that are "qualified" for use against SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Some Clorox and Lysol products are on the list, but so are dozens and dozens of others.

Here's what the EPA says about killing the virus:

"Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses, meaning they are one of the easiest types of viruses to kill with the appropriate disinfectant product. Consumers using these disinfectants on an enveloped emerging virus should follow the directions for use on the product's master label, paying close attention to the contact time for the product on the treated surface (i.e., how long the disinfectant should remain on the surface)."

As far as keeping your hands virus-free, the CDC says handwashing for at least 20 seconds is still your best bet. If that's not possible, it recommends using an "alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol."

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IS IT SAFE TO TOUCH TAKEOUT & DELIVERY FOOD CONTAINERS?
"There is no evidence to support transmission of COVID-19 associated with food," according to the CDC, but the virus can live on surfaces.

To reduce risk, go contactless when getting meals delivered.

In whatever app you're using (or on the phone), ask your driver to leave your food outside your door. You might have to leave the message as a note.

Once you've brought it in, put the food on your own plates, throw out the packaging and wash your hands for 20 seconds before eating.

And tip well.

If you're doing takeout in Los Angeles, look for new signage about special parking zones for to make pickup easier.

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WHERE CAN I FIND LOW-COST OR FREE FOOD?
We have a weekly, updating list of where to find free food.

There's a food bank locator.

And a locator for food pantries, soup kitchens, food shelves, and other food help.

Grab & Go meal sites are set up for students and families.

Here's a number to call to find lower-cost fresh food.

Some restaurants are operating as pop-up general stores and we have a neighborhood guide.

Emergency meals can be delivered to seniors 60+ who live in the city of L.A. -- (213) 263-5226.

And the state is reimbursing restaurants to deliver free meals to seniors. Call 211.

WIC is allowing online applications for the special supplemental nutrition program.

And there are more food resources available across the county.

If you know of something we should add to this list, share it with us at tips@laist.com.

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ARE FARMERS MARKETS ALLOWED TO OPERATE?
Farmers markets were initially deemed "essential," and allowed to stay open.

But, like other outdoor spaces, there were crowds and questions about safety.

So, operations were suspended in the city of Los Angeles, and any market that wished to reopen was required to submit a social distancing plan for approval.

The city is keeping a list of L.A. markets that were given permission to reopen.

Santa Monica has also instituted changes to its farmers markets.

Check for updates about market operations on the Santa Monica city website and @SMFMS on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.

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WHAT'S THE SAFEST WAY TO SHOP AT THE GROCERY STORE
We made a guide with everything we know so far about COVID-19 and food (and what we don't know), including tips for minimizing risk at the grocery store:
1. Try to go at a less busy time. Generally, earlier is better, and weekdays seem to be less busy than weekends.

2. If you're a senior or in another high-risk group, take advantage of the "senior shopping hours" many stores have introduced.

3. Wear a mask if you have one. California is expected to issue some official guidance on mask-wearing soon.

4. Wear latex gloves if you have them, be careful about tearing, and avoid touching your face when they're on.

5. If you don't have gloves, use hand-sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. If you don't have either, use an plastic produce bag to touch certain items or produce.

6. Before you touch your cart, wipe it down with an antiseptic wipe.

7. While you're in the store, stay at least 6 feet away from other shoppers.

8. While you're in the store, touch as few things as possible.

Read our full food-related guide with sections on unpacking groceries, changing clothes, raw produce, and more.
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CAN I HELP FEED EXHAUSTED HEALTHCARE WORKERS?
Yes.

A number of restaurants, organizations, and people across Southern California have crowdfunding campaigns to support meal deliveries to hospitals.

Some restaurants are also offering discounts or free delivery to hospital staff.

We have a starter list.

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SHOULD I STILL TRAVEL?
No. You should not travel right now.

But also, you're not allowed to travel right now if you live in L.A.

Mayor Garcetti's "Safer at Home, Stay at Home" order went into effect on March 19 at 11:59 p.m. prohibiting all travel, with some exceptions.

There's a city order.

And a county order.

And Gov. Newsom's similar, statewide order is also in effect.

All the orders require that you stay in your place of residence.

You are allowed to leave if your job, or the thing you need to do, is categorized as "essential." For example: picking up food is OK; planned vacations are not.

This is what "essential" means, according to the city, county, and state orders.

Or you can read our crib sheet: Here's What You Can And Can't Do Under The Stay At Home Order.

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ARE ALL EVENTS CANCELED IN CALIFORNIA?
Basically, yes. That's why we just struck through all this earlier guidance.

The goal is to slow the spread of COVID-19 by "flattening the curve" and not overwhelming the medical infrastructure.

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IS NATURE CLOSED?
You are allowed to go outside, take a walk, and enjoy an open space. But some outdoor areas are off-limits because of crowding.

Even in nature, you are required to stay 6 feet away from people.

On March 22, L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti tweeted that over the "weekend we saw too many people packing beaches, trails and parks. So we are closing sports and recreation at @LACityParks and closing parking at city beaches. That doesn't mean gather elsewhere. This is serious. Stay home and save lives."

On March 23, the county's Department of Parks and Recreations announced that "trails and natural areas" would be closed until further notice.

Later that day, the Santa Monica Stairs were closed. Runyon Canyon was sealed off too.

On March 27, L.A. County fully shut down all public beaches, including bathrooms, piers, promenades, and bike paths, and L.A. city shut down all trails, including Griffith Park.

After another crowded weekend, Garcetti closed the Silver Lake Meadow. And the Angeles National Forest shut down portions of the San Gabriel Mountains too.

And yes, it was all still closed even on Easter.

But none of these restrictions deterred skaters from visiting Venice Beach. So now the skate park is filled with sand.

And heading to the O.C. isn't a loophole to get a beach fix. Guidance from California State Parks is to stay close to home, saying now is "not the time for a road trip to a destination" to the beach. But not everyone got that message (or listened to it). Newport Beach, which was reopened, was visited by so many people -- including many from out of the area -- that restrictions were being considered again.

More on the coronavirus response from:

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ARE COOLING CENTERS OPEN DURING THE PANDEMIC?
Yes. L.A. County has released a list of cooling centers where you can escape the heat -- and remain physically distanced.

These spaces will likely fill up faster than usual because of the distancing rules, and the county advises calling first to make sure seating is available.

You can also call 211 for information from L.A. County, and 311 in the city of L.A.

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IS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION STILL OPERATIONAL?
Public transit is still running across L.A. County for people working essential jobs or seeking essential supplies. However most agencies have reduced service.

L.A. Metro made a first round of schedule changes in mid-March because of plummeting ridership. Another decrease is planned to begin on April 19. For schedule changes, check service advisories online and rider alerts on Twitter.

Also, for safety, Metro has moved to rear-door boarding for all its buses (riders who need wheelchair ramp access can still use the front door), and required the transparent barrier up front be closed as a layer of protection. At rail stations, custodial staff are disinfecting touch points.

And one small note for a small railway: Angels Flight has stopped carrying riders up and down Bunker Hill until further notice.

Elsewhere in municipal transit:

  • LADOT, which has waived fares on its bus routes, is requesting that passengers wear a face covering while riding. Rear-door boarding is in effect. DASH buses have limited passengers per bus: 30-foot buses will carry no more than 10 riders at a time; 35-foot buses will cap passengers at 12. The DASH Observatory/Los Feliz route is now a Los Feliz-only line. The on-demand shuttle service LAnow has been suspended. The electric car-sharing service Blue LA, has also been suspended. Check for updates on schedules and service changes.
  • Foothill Transit is also not collecting fares right now and rear-door boarding is in effect. Service is reduced.
  • The Antelope Valley Transit Authority has cut maximum occupancy and a "reduced Saturday Schedule" is in effect Monday through Sunday. Several routes have been canceled.
  • Big Blue Bus in Santa Monica halted service on a few of its lines and moved to rear-door boarding. Weekday service on most bus routes has also changed "until further notice," the agency said. Check for updates on schedules and service changes.
  • Culver CityBus waived fares for riders and rear-door boarding is in effect. Certain bus lines are running Saturday service timelines during the week.
  • Both Pasadena Transit's buses and its on-demand shuttle service for seniors and people with disabilities remain in service, and the city has waived fares.
  • Bus services in the cities of Glendale were operating as normal.
  • Burbank reduced service on all its bus lines. They've also moved to free fares and rear-door boarding.
    Santa Clarita Transit has reduced service across its system. Cancellation and schedule updates are available online.

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CAN I STILL RIDE AN ELECTRIC SCOOTER OR BIKE?
Lime pulled its scooters off the streets and suspended service across California.

Bird, Lyft, and Jump said they've increased cleaning and disinfecting of their respective scooters and e-bikes. They're also encouraging riders to clean scooters and e-bike handles with disinfecting wipes before and after riding.

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SHOULD I GET A GUN?
We've researched this question in a number of contexts, most recently while working on The Big One podcast.

We know people are buying guns, but we also know that most people aren't trained to use them, much less in high stress situations. And that can have disastrous consequences (even for people who are trained).

With a gun in the home, you're more likely to do something unjustifiable than to use it properly in self-defense. And while you're here imagining what you might need to defend against, keep in mind that people don't typically react to disasters like they do in the movies.

"We tend to come together as humans and work together and help each other," sociologist Joseph Trainor told us previously. During an earthquake, for example, it's much more likely you'd be rescued from a fallen building by a fellow victim than by an emergency response team, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

L.A. County Sheriff Alex Villanueva's take: "Buying guns is a bad idea." And "particularly, now that you have a lot of people home," he said during a news conference on March 16. "Cabin fever sets in. You've got a crowded environment. ... Weapons are not a good mix."

There might also be anxiety, depression, existential dread, or suicidal thoughts to navigate as the pandemic evolves and a possible global recession plays out.

Here's more on the case for not panic-buying a gun.

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HOW IS "SAFER AT HOME" BEING ENFORCED?
All non-essential businesses have been ordered to close until further notice. Not all have complied.

"This behavior is irresponsible and selfish," Garcetti said during a news briefing on March 24. "It may serve a few people for a moment, but it will put all of us at risk for a long time."

His message to non-compliant businesses: "This is your chance to step up and to shut it down, because if you don't, we will shut you down."

He announced an enforcement plan with escalating measures:

  • The "Safer at Home" Business Ambassadors Program was established, made up of city workers and volunteers from the mayor's Crisis Response Team.
  • Non-essential, non-compliant businesses will be visited by program team members and asked to voluntarily comply.
  • If that doesn't happen, the LAPD and City Attorney will be notified.
  • The City Attorney will also contact businesses about violations before moving to stronger enforcement.
  • Stronger enforcement could mean citations, and repeat offenders could face misdemeanor charges.
  • The city could also shut off water and power to those businesses.

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HOW DO I REPORT A NON-COMPLIANT BUSINESS, GATHERING, OR OTHER VIOLATION?
To report non-essential businesses that have not closed, and/or order violations at exempt businesses and construction sites (like: social distancing, hand washing, disinfecting, sharing items, etc.):

To report gatherings and/or other public health violations:

But what's the etiquette if you see a shopper without a mask or a stranger doesn't move out of the way when you're walking around the neighborhood? Here are some highlights from a discussion on AirTalk with Larry Mantle on KPCC 89.3.

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WHAT IF I CAN'T PAY MY RENT OR MORTGAGE BECAUSE OF CORONAVIRUS?
Residential eviction in California is banned until May 31, 2020. And the majority of L.A. County households are renters.

Gov. Gavin Newsom issued an executive order on March 27 that prohibits enforcement by law enforcement and courts.

If you can't pay all or some of your rent because of COVID-19, declare it in writing no more than seven days after rent is due, and save any related documentation about illness, termination, etc. Once lifted, repayment is due "in a timely manner."

L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti said the city was expanding its eviction moratorium as well, which covers both commercial and residential units. Tenants will now have a full year to pay back any rent they can't afford to pay during the current pandemic.

L.A. County also has a countywide eviction moratorium in effect prohibiting residential and commercial evictions for nonpayment of rent, late fees, and related costs due to a loss of business or household income caused by COVID-19.

Garcetti has also issued a new emergency order to temporary halt rent increases in rent-stabilized units, and motions to provide rent relief and freezes were introduced in L.A. City Council.

However, it may not be enough without rent forgiveness. Some experts and advocates say people won't be able to save the money needed for back rent, and that could lead to future evictions and homelessness.

Meanwhile, the L.A. County Board of Supervisors voted to create a rental assistance program. This was a separate action from a rent relief program that's was making its way through L.A. City Council.

One of the funds has $2.1 million for "families that are already struggling to pay their rent, and are living paycheck to paycheck," said Council President Nury Martinez. It's expected to help several hundred families. A report from the city's housing department has the details and criteria.

For people who own a home: some banks have agreed to 90-day mortgage waivers.

See a video of our renters' rights and eviction Q&A with an attorney from the Legal Aid Foundation of Los Angeles.

TL;DR: Here's a short list of critical things to know if you're a California renter right now:

  1. During this emergency, you cannot be evicted from your home for not having paid rent.
  2. Evictions are on hold until 90 days after the end of the COVID-19 state of emergency, except those dealing with public health and safety
  3. If you cannot pay rent, you must notify your landlord in writing ASAP.
  4. Landlords can legally start eviction proceedings during this time, but the soonest a court might issue a summons would be 90 days after the end of the COVID-19 state of emergency.
  5. Landlords cannot change the locks or remove your property from your unit.
  6. Only the local sheriff's department has the authority to legally lock you out.
  7. You are legally responsible to repay all rent missed during the pandemic after the emergency is over.
  8. Depending on where you live you may have a grace period of up to one year to pay it back.
  9. Do not sign anything from your landlord without first consulting an attorney.

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CAN I GET HELP FOR MY SMALL BUSINESS?
There are some options.

The City of Los Angeles's Economic and Workforce Development Department (EWDD) announced low- to no-interest loans, ranging from $5,000 to $20,000. The loans for qualifying businesses will be offered without interest for up to a year, or at 3-5% interest for up to five years.

The U.S. Small Business Administration was also offering low-interest disaster loans for small businesses in certain states, including California.

Another $349 billion in small business loans was included in the coronavirus stimulus package, but the PPP ran out of money after 13 days. "The SBA is currently unable to accept new applications for the Paycheck Protection Program based on available appropriations funding," reads the notice on the SBA website.

If you need help figuring it all out, get in touch with L.A. CARES Corps. It's an L.A. county/city effort that was created to help small business owners apply for loans. Reach out online or call 833-238-4450 to speak with a loan counselor.

And here are some answers to commonly asked questions about getting government help.

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HOW DO I APPLY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF CORONAVIRUS?
You can file a claim with EDD due to cut hours, unpaid leave, termination, and other coronavirus-related reasons.

And with the new Pandemic Unemployment Assistance program, there's expanded access for many people who didn't qualify for unemployment benefits before, like gig workers, freelancers, and other self-employed people. The program also includes some people who've exhausted their unemployment insurance.

But officials are still trying to figure out how to process theses kinds of claims. Labor Secretary Julie Su said in a Facebook Live video that once the new system is ready, applicants will start to get payments within 24 to 48 hours.

You can start applying for PUA program on April 28.

The first payments will be out by April 30 and are retroactive up to the first week of February for those who can show their employment was affected by COVID-19.

The additional $600 per week from the federal government will apply to PUA payments starting March 29.

Meanwhile, EDD is encouraging people to review their eligibility.

And, if you're not sure if you are an independent contractor, you could file for regular unemployment and "we will determine your eligibility."

Here's a live event Q&A we held about applying for unemployement.

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TELL ME ABOUT THE $2 TRILLION CORONAVIRUS STIMULUS PACKAGE
It's the largest emergency relief package in U.S. history. It was passed by Congress and signed into law on March 27.

Broadly, the plan includes:

  • Direct payments to Americans
  • An aggressive expansion of unemployment insurance
  • Billions in aid to large and small businesses
  • A new wave of significant funding for the healthcare industry

Some of the specifics:

Other things to know about those checks/direct deposits:

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WHERE CAN I GET OTHER KINDS OF HELP?

-LA County Child Protection Hotline: 1 (800) 540-4000
-Alliance for Children's Rights
-Court Appointed Special Advocates For Children (CASA of LA)
-Childhelp National Abuse Hotline: 1 (800) 422-4453

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WHAT'S THE NEW DEADLINE FOR TAXES?
You now have until July 15 to file your state and federal tax returns.

The IRS automatically extended the deadline.

No forms or fees required.

California has done the same.

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CAN MY JOB ASK ME TO STAY HOME AND NOT PAY ME?
If you've been asked to self-quarantine because you or a family member is sick, you should be entitled to use your sick time for at least part of it.

The federal Coronavirus Relief Act also requires employers with less than 500 employees to provide two weeks of paid, virus-related sick leave and family leave.

And in California, a statewide executive order adds two weeks of extra paid sick leave for essential food service workers (like grocery store employees, fast-food employees, and farmworkers) who have contracted or been exposed to the coronavirus -- or been ordered to isolate or enter quarantine.

The California Department of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE) has more answers related to workplace laws in the age of coronavirus.

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HOW LOCAL HOSPITALS ARE RESPONDING
Officials continue to urge people to stay at home, even when they're sick, unless they believe they need hospital-level care. Meanwhile,

On March 23, Gov. Gavin Newsom said California needed 1 billion gloves, 595 million masks, and two million shields for three months of protection for health care workers. A few days later has said we needed 50,000 additional hospital beds. The state also said it was looking to tap more potential medical staff to handle a possible surge in COVID-19 patients.

On April 8, it was announced that California will invest more than $1.4 billion into personal protective equipment (PPE) for both medical workers and frontline employees (including grocery store workers). The state has also secured contracts for 200 million masks from various providers.

But some health care workers are concerned for their safety and don't think enough is being done to protect them.

"Right now, there's a lack of supplies -- specifically protective equipment, PPE's -- so we're not feeling too safe because we still have to go home to our families," a health care worker at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center told us back in March.

AP reported on April 16 that 10 nurses were suspended from Providence Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica after refusing to work with COVID-19 patients until N95 face masks were provided, according the National Nurses United. They were subsequently reinstated, AP reported, and the hospital said it would be supplying the masks to nurses working with infected patients.

Meanwhile, as the state continues to look for hand sanitizer, testing reagents, and other supplies to help in the fight against coronavirus, more than 2,300 individuals and companies filled out applications on the state's site for contributing supplies.

Here's a looks inside L.A.s new "COVID only" surge hospital.

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WILL HOSPITALS ACCEPT HOMEMADE MASKS?
It depends on the hospital.

There's a list of U.S. facilities accepting donations, created by students at the UC Berkeley School of Public Health, that includes a number of SoCal hospitals. The list has specifics about quantity, patterns, delivery instructions, and more.

"Go ahead and do it," the chief medical officer at Keck Hospital of USC told us. "If we need to use it, we'll use it."

None of the hospital officials we spoke with said their personnel have started using homemade masks, but they worried that day will come.

Casual stitchers and sew shops around L.A. have been responding to the need.

At Suay Sew Shop in Frogtown, the goal is to make and distribute 10,000 masks in a week -- and then continue that pace. A first-grade teacher we spoke to said that even if hospitals didn't want her homemade masks they could be used by pharmacy technicians, grocery employees, or delivery people.

The CDC has issued guidance on homemade masks, saying they can be used while treating patients as "a last resort," and ideally under a plastic face shield similar to what you'd see on a welder.

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I'M A MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL. HOW CAN I HELP?
L.A. Maryor Eric Garcetti announced an online portal.

If you're a medical professional and want to help with the response, fill out this form at with your training, skills, experience, and availability.

The state is also looking for health care staff to assist with the projected surge in coronavirus patients.

Gov. Gavin Newsom asked a wide variety of medical professionals to check on eligibility and register to help via a state portal.

The effort also includes health people who may have retired in the last five years or are currently working to get licensed or relicensed.

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THE SITUATION AT NURSING HOMES
Coronavirus cases have been clustering in nursing homes, according to state data released by the California Department of Public Health.

More than a fifth of the state's skilled nursing facilities reported cases as of April 17 -- and not just in populous parts of the state, but also in more rural areas.

From Newport Beach to Hollywood, dozens of Southern California nursing homes made the state's list.

In Long Beach and Pasadena, health departments have new rules for skilled nursing and assisted living facilities. Staff must now wear face masks, and workers must have their temperatures taken twice daily,even if they don't have a confirmed case at the location.

Gov. Gavin Newsom said the officials are monitoring senior centers, assisted living facilities, and other sites to prioritize distribution of testing kits and personal protective equipment.

Newsom urged Californians to sign up to volunteer at senior facilities.

On April 24, L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti rolled out an emergency order mandating coronavirus testing for all residents, workers and contractors at every skilled nursing facility in L.A. County every month.

Garcetti said L.A. is the first city in the country to put forth such a mandate.

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HOW SCHOOLS ARE RESPONDING
All 80 public school districts in L.A. County are closed, including the second largest K-12 district in the United States, and the third largest district in California.

On March 13, Los Angeles Unified School District canceled all in-person classes, sending half a million kids home -- effective Monday, March 16 -- with coursework moved online.

LAUSD teachers received an email from Superintendent Austin Beutner saying the district would be closed for two weeks "while we evaluate the appropriate path forward."

The closures followed an earlier LAUSD emergency declaration, and efforts by schools across the region to increase cleaning efforts.

Gov. Gavin Newsom said on March 17 it's "unlikely" that schools will reopen before summer break. State officials have promised to suspend K-12 standardized testing this year.

On March 23, Beutner announced a revised timeline for LAUSD: schools will stay closed until at least May 1.

On March 31, California's top elected education looked deeper into the calendar. In a letter -- which you can read on the news site EdSource -- state superintendent Tony Thurmond urged local school district leaders to prepare to beef up their online course offerings through the end of the academic year.

A labor deal announced April 9 between LAUSD and its teachers union formalized how the district will operate during the shutdown. United Teachers Los Angeles shared full terms of the deal. Some specifics:

  • Teachers will provide instruction for, on average, 240 minutes (or, four hours) per day.
  • Teachers should set regular schedules and stick to them. The idea is to "avoid scheduling conflicts."
  • Teachers will hold three regular "office hour" sessions per week.
  • Students' grades can still go up, but they can't go down.
  • Live video instruction is not mandatory.

The agreement also covers issues of pay -- including for substitute teachers -- and evaluations.

On April 13, LAUSD announced it will not be reopening campuses this school year, and that remote learning will remain in place for summer school.

Superintendent Austin Beutner said school facilities will not reopen "until state and local health authorities tell us how it is safe and appropriate to do so," and that campuses would be closed until authorities set up a "robust system of testing and contact tracing."

We closed school facilities on March 13th so our schools did not become a petri dish and cause the virus to spread in the communities we serve. That has worked. We do not want to reverse that in a hasty return to schools.

For seniors who are a few credits shy of a diploma, the L.A. Community College District can help get you graduate. There are free online summer classes which can earn students credits to graduate -- (and you get to keep them as college credits too). High school counselors can help you figure out which school/classes to choose. Here's information about how to sign up. LACCD classes start May 18.

By the end of this school year, LAUSD will have spent approximately $200 million on its pandemic response: $78 million for meals, perhaps $50 million for expanded summer school, $31 million to train teachers for distance learning, $23 million to close the digital divide, and $9 million for safety equipment.

As for how the grading will work, many districts have relaxed their policies:

  • LAUSD will not issue any "F's" this semester -- and no overall grade will drop lower from where it stood in March.

  • Long Beach Unified elementary students will not receive report cards at all this semester. Middle- and high school students will receive pass-fail grades.

  • Corona-Norco Unified students grades' can only improve from their March level.

  • Santa Ana Unified will likely revisit its grading policies soon. While details are still in the works, Superintendent Jerry Almendarez told students in a video update: "We don't want you stressing out about your grades."

  • On the other hand, San Bernardino City Unified has not changed its grading policies or practices, spokeswoman Linda Bardere said in an email.

And most California colleges -- both public and private -- have already decided to accept "pass-fail" grades from classes disrupted by the pandemic.

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HOW DO I BORROW A SCHOOL COMPUTER OR IPAD FOR DISTANCE LEARNING?
LAUSD is spending $100 million on devices and hotspots so that no student misses out on online lessons. District leaders promised a laptop or tablet computer to every student who needs one to learn during the the shutdown.

Schools are contacting students to distribute the devices, but parents who want to make a request can contact the district's hotline: (213) 443-1300. The request will be routed to the proper school.

In another attempt to help students access online education, Google has committed to rolling out 100,000 free Wi-Fi hotspots throughout the state.

There are also some low-cost home internet deals to help bridge the digital divide. Here are a few options:

  • AT&T: The company's Access program offers internet service at $5-10 per month for low-income families. Through April 30, the company is offering two months of Access service for free. They've also expanded eligibility to all households enrolled in Head Start or receiving free or reduced-price meals at school. Families can apply here or call: 855-220-5211 (in English) or 855-220-5225 (in Spanish). For all other households, AT&T has paused disconnections and late fees through May 13, and is also "temporarily" waiving overage fees on home internet data.

  • Charter Spectrum: Teachers and families with school-aged children who aren't already Spectrum customers can sign up for two free months of internet service. After those 60 days, a spokesman says the company will offer a "discounted promotional price" for another 10 months. Customers can cancel at any time. Spectrum also offers low-cost service for certain qualifying low-income households. Families can sign up here or call 844-488-8395.

  • Starting on March 20, existing T-Mobile customers on smartphone plans will receive an additional 20 gigabytes of data to use their phones as hotspots for the next 60 days. The company is also expanding data allowances for schools using their wireless plans.

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HOW DO I ACCESS SERVICES THAT MY CHILD USED TO GET AT SCHOOL?
Superintendent Austin Beutner said common special education services like physical, occupational, and speech therapies were being providing "via teleconferencing." Here is the district's FAQ on providing support. Legally-protected learning plans are to be "implemented to the maximum extent possible," according to a labor deal announced April 9.

Many families also depend on schools for meals -- we've been compiling a list of places that will provide food while schools are closed.

And LAUSD also opened a hotline so "students and families can call for help to manage fear, anxiety and other challenges related to COVID-19." Counselors and mental health professionals will answer hotline calls in English and Spanish: (213) 241-3840.

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HOW PRESCHOOLS AND DAY CARE PROVIDERS ARE RESPONDING
Some preschools and day care centers are still open. The state did not order them to close, instead, that decision was left up to individual providers and municipalities.

L.A. County said it would allow it if kids are cared for in small groups that stay separated.

Guidelines were issued by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health for early care and education providers who continue to operate. They include:

  • No more "circle time"
  • Caring for kids in groups of 12 or less -- no new kids can be added to an existing group, and mixing between different groups is prohibited
  • Keeping groups in different rooms at larger facilities
  • Adult providers must stay with the same group of children
  • Practicing social distancing by restricting visitors to facilities
  • Spacing out children's activities and focusing on individual activities like coloring and puzzles

Updated guidance from the Department of Social Services reduced the number of children in groups to 10, and the number is even lower if infants are part of the group.

The new rules are in effect until June 30.

Also, by executive order, there is now state-funded child care for essential workers --health care professionals, emergency responders, law enforcement, and grocery employees. Here's the outline for how providers should prioritize enrollment of new families.

The order also allows care providers to take advantage of new provisions of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program to make sure kids get nutritious meals at little or no cost.

And, in addition to the stimulus package, local resources, and loan options, there is financial relief specifically available for child care providers.

L.A. and state officials have also expanded child care options for hospital workers. Garcetti said the goal is "to ensure that no essential worker misses a shift, because he or she doesn't have child care during this crisis."

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ARE PARKING TICKETS STILL BEING ISSUED?
Street-sweeping tickets are not being issued in L.A. city residential areas. There's a hold on towing and citing vehicles with expired registration. Citations for driver's with expired licenses are on pause. And there's also an extension on all payment deadlines.

The changes will be in effect until at least May 15.

Here's the full list of "relaxed enforcement" categories from LADOT:

- Residential street sweeping
- Expired registration on a vehicle
- Peak/rush hour and gridlock zone parking restrictions
- No ticket/tow for abandoned vehicles and overnight parking
- Vehicles displaying recently expired permits within preferential parking districts will have a two-week grace period following the expiration to renew

In addition:

- No parking fine increases until after June 1
- Extended grace period for people dropping off or picking up
- Immediate extensions on all deadlines for payments until June 1
- LADOT will supply a temporary, print-at-home permit to residents within a preferential parking district who have renewed their permit but will not receive the new hangtag before their current permit expires

But parking enforcement is still happening in other cases. Per LADOT enforcement continues for:
- Metered parking
- Time limits within preferential parking districts for vehicles without a valid or recently-expired permit
- Posted time limits zones in residential and commercial areas
- Posted temporary no-parking for repaving, street repair, and other street maintenance
- No blocking emergency access (alleyways, fire hydrants, etc.)
- Colored curb zones
- Parking restrictions for City-owned lots

Check for updates in the "parking enforcement" section of the Mayor's FAQs, or call 311, or check LADOT's coronavirus page.

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HAS TRASH COLLECTION CHANGED?
More people at home can mean more garbage piling up. So pick-ups are increasing in the city of L.A.

L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti announced that the city will temporarily be providing additional garbage and recycling pick-ups at single-family homes and apartments serviced by the city's sanitation department.

If you have more trash than will fit in the bins, meet the sanitation trucks when they arrive (while keeping physical distancing and mask recommendations in mind). Refill your black and blue bins after the trucks eat the first round, and they'll take those too.

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WHAT ARE L.A. EMPLOYEES DOING TO FLATTEN THE CURVE?
City and county leaders announced new rules for themselves at a press conference on March 12. Protocols include:

  • No more than 50 visitors in city buildings at a time

  • Events and conferences held on city property must have fewer than 50 people.

  • Non-essential travel by city and Los Angeles Sheriff's Department employees is canceled

  • City Hall is closed to all non-city employees

  • Hand-washing and sanitizing facilities will be available at all city properties

  • 911 operators will screen callers about COVID-19 exposure to help reduce the risk to first responders

  • County Emergency Operations Center moved to Level 1 (which means it will be fully staffed with leaders and experts from every county department, as well as with outside experts)

On March 23, Los Angeles City Council President Nury Martinez announced the cancelation of in-person council meetings until officials can figure out how to hold them safely.

According to Garcetti's stay-at-home order, government employees "working within the course and scope of their public service employment" are exempt. They are instructed to "follow any current or future directives issued by the Mayor."

All of the city's first responders, gang and crisis intervention workers, public health workers, emergency management personnel, emergency dispatchers, law enforcement personnel, related contractors, and others employed with emergency services providers are also exempt.

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WHAT'S HAPPENING AT THE COURTS?
L.A. Superior Court Presiding Judge Kevin C. Brazile announced on March 16 that the largest unified trial court system in the United States would be temporarily shut down.

When it was reopened a few days later it was for "essential or emergency matters."

All civil and criminal trials were suspended.

And jurors were not to report for service until April 16 (and no additional prospective jurors were to be summoned).

On April 15, that order was extended for 30 days.

Meanwhile, courtrooms have been pivoting to remote proceedings.

After facing criticism from county attorneys and judicial advocacy groups, L.A. County will implement remote video hearings in courtrooms across the region.

The county says 32 courtrooms in 17 courthouses in each of the court's 12 judicial districts will use the new technology.

Now, people charged with a felony or misdemeanor will have the option to be arraigned remotely using a conferencing service called WebEx.

And all essential juvenile dependency hearings are now using remote technology, and delinquency hearings are being held "to the extent permitted by law" in all juvenile courthouses.

There are also plans for a remote technology pilot for mental health conservatorship hearings at the Hollywood Courthouse.

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WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO L.A.'S BUDGET?
There are massive proposed cuts to the city budget.

The new fiscal year begins July 1, and the city is facing a staggering loss of tax revenue due to the coronavirus pandemic. Mayor Eric Garcetti has declared "a state of fiscal emergency as part of the 2020-2021 budget."

A revised estimate of city revenues forecasts a $231 million shortfall this fiscal year, and up to $598 million short next year.

Garcetti signaled that there will be furloughs for the city's civilian workforce, and he estimated city workers are expected to forego about 10% of their salaries. The city's hiring freeze is also continuing.

Read the full 511-page budget proposal, or take the easy way (you deserve it) and read our guide to the proposed cuts. Here are some of the areas included:

Based on an estimate from the city housing department, the $2.1 million could help several hundred families.

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HOW ARE WE HELPING OUR HOMELESS NEIGHBORS?
On March 18, L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti activated an emergency power granted to him by the city charter in order to provide special assistance to the homeless population.

The power he cited is known as the Disaster Service Worker Program, a measure which gives the mayor the ability to redeploy any city employee to combat a crisis, including to house the homeless.

Garcetti laid out several steps the city will take to ramp up the opening of emergency shelters, including:

Garcetti said the city will follow the social distancing guidelines required by public health officials, and not try to house more people in the shelters than they can contain.
On March 22, the CDC weighed in on the practice of clearing of homeless encampments, or "sweeps." Its guidance is: don't -- unless individual housing units can be provided: "Clearing encampments can cause people to disperse throughout the community and break connections with service providers. This increases the potential for infectious disease spread."

On March 23, Gov. Gavin Newsom announced that millions in emergency grants would be distributed to cities and counties for hotels to house the homeless.

On April 8, L.A. county officials announced an effort to shelter thousands of homeless people in up to 15,000 hotel rooms so they'll have a safe place to isolate during the pandemic.

"They are not sick when they go in. These are for people who are not experiencing symptoms, giving a place to shelter so they don't contract anything," said Heidi Marston, the interim director of the Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority.

As of April 17, only 575 of the 2,377 rooms they've secured so far have been occupied.

The city also launching its first trailer program, which will be used to house homeless Angelenos who are high-risk and asymptomatic (over 65 and/or have chronic medical conditions). The trailers were given to the city by the state. The goal is to have 300 trailers city-wide.

And, despite the city's financial distress, Garcetti said spending on homelessness by the City of Los Angeles will remain steady. The budget line is projected to reach just shy of $430 million in the next fiscal year.

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AND A LOT OF OTHER QUESTIONS, ANSWERED
Do I Need To Change My Clothes When I Get Home From The Grocery Store?

I Don't Have Insurance. Can I Still Get Tested For Coronavirus?

Is The Water Supply Safe?

Do I Have To File A Tax Return To Get A Stimulus Check?

Can I Still Go To The Dentist?

Can I Still Go To The DMV?

What If A Big Earthquake Hit California Right Now?

Should I Put A Face Mask On My Infant / Baby / Toddler / Child?

How Do I Borrow A Computer Or Tablet For My LAUSD Student?

What If I Need To Go To The ER For Something Else?

Will I Get Paid Sick Time If Coronavirus Puts Me Out Of A Job?

Am I Doing Social Distancing Right?

Are Offices And Workplaces Going To Be The Same After This?

Yes, Cannabis Shops Stay Open

Should I Take My Child To Get Routine Vaccinations?

Are Restaurants Allowed To Sell Provision Boxes And Groceries?

I Can Sew Homemade Masks. Will Hospitals Use Them?

Will My Child's Day Care Center Or Preschool Close?

What Does Coronavirus Do To Your Cells?

How Would LA's Funeral Industry Handle Mass Casulties?

What Do I Need To Buy To Prep For Coronavirus?

Why Aren't There Enough Tests?

Can I Get Coronavirus From My Faucet Or Shower?

Can The Coronavirus Be Transmitted On Paper, Coins, Or Mail?

What Do I Do If I Can't Find Any Hand Sanitizer?

How Much More Cautious Should I Be About Coronavirus If I Have An Underlying Condition?

Is It Safe To Take LA Metro In The Age Of Coronavirus?

What's The Cost Of A Coronavirus Test If I Have Medi-Cal?

So, When Is Coachella Now?

How Should I Talk To Little Kids About Coronavirus?

How Are Local Colleges Handling Online Classes Because Of Coronavirus?

If I'm An Asymptomatic Coronavirus Carrier, How Long Will I Be Contagious?

What To Know About California's 'Lockdown' Of Seniors And The Chronically Ill

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WHAT ELSE? SEND US MORE OF YOUR QUESTIONS.
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Edited and skippered by Lisa Brenner. With contributions from Robert Garrova, Paul Glickman, Lisa Brenner, Megan Erwin, Brian Frank, Megan Garvey, Kyle Stokes, Adriene Hill, Mike Roe, Matt Tinoco, Stephanie Ritoper, Elly Yu, Libby Denkmann, Elina Shatkin, Ryan Fonseca, Jackie Fortier, Jacob Margolis, Josie Huang, Jessica Ogilvie, Emily Guerin, Stephan A. Slater, Fiona Chandra, Caitlin Hernandez, Carla Javier, Nick Roman, Emily Elena Dugdale, Brianna Lee, and the entire KPCC/LAist newsroom.

This story has been updated dozens of times as news continues to break on this national emergency. It was originally published on January 28, 2020.